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Wednesday, June 30, 2010

corporate knowledge sharing

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corporate knowledge sharing
Knowledge management can be implemented within an organization to serve a general purpose (such as corporate e-mail does) or it can be implemented to solve a specific problem. Both mandates may result in the same end-product — a corporate knowledge sharing system — being implemented, but its acceptance within the user community may be very different.

It's the users' perception of the system that may ultimately determine whether it succeeds, and in certain situations, whether it even gets done. Many promising knowledge sharing systems, and intranets in general, end up failing because they were created without an explicit, business-process-targeted goal. It's difficult for employees to get excited about contributing to a system when wishy-washy and overly generic mandates such as "to improve corporate collaboration" or "to share information among departmental workgroups" are given.

In order to grab the interest of those who will be participating in the development of a knowledge sharing system, the mandate must target a specific, real-world problem that employees can relate to. By doing so, you're providing employees with direct context — a practical application for the knowledge sharing system.

This mentality is very similar to our motivation to learn something new when we were studying our trades in school. For example, it was often difficult to learn a new programming language simply for the sake of meeting the requirements of the curriculum. Cracking open that back-breaking textbook and reading chapter after chapter was an exercise in tedium. But when asked to write a program with a clearly defined goal, many students picked up the new language out of a practical need. We had a problem to solve and we were motivated to build something to solve that problem.

Tuesday, June 29, 2010

Business Intelligence Knowledge Management

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Business Intelligence Knowledge Management
To be effective, executives, operations managers and project managers need a solution that highlights project and organizational performance, exposes key trends, and enables them to investigate problem areas. BST Enterprise delivers prioritized and urgent project, resource and financial information through Performance Portals, Analytics Solutions and Integrated Business Processing.

BST Enterprise Performance Portals provide management teams with performance scorecards and the ability to execute analysis around performance results. Sitting in front of a comprehensive Information Warehouse, the portals provide access to all of an organization's vital information, whether sourced from BST Enterprise or other applications.

BST Enterprise rests on the Microsoft Analysis Services platform and takes full advantage of its power. It provides analytics solutions aimed at the unique requirements of financial and project supporting staff as well as marketing and business development managers who need to analyze historical performance in support of new opportunities.

From within performance scorecards or analytics content – often in response to an alert condition – executing a business process or accessing an application screen is just a click away.

Benefits

  • Drive high performance through performance scorecards and status and trend indicators
  • Inform management of problems before they happen through a system of alerts and exceptions
  • Give users the ability to do ad hoc analysis according to their role and authorization
  • Achieve transparency and enable action

Source:
http://www.bstglobal.com/capabilities/solutions/bi_knowledge_management.htm

Monday, June 28, 2010

personal knowledge base

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personal knowledge base
The key success factors of Knowledge Management Implementation can be started from personal. That what it is called Personal Knowledge Management. There is a tool for helping you to start Personal Knowledge Management using tool : personal knowledge base.

One of them is ALEX. ALEX Personal Knowledge Base is a very simple tool to organize your knowledge, notes, ideas and other information. ALEX PKB is FREE to all type of users to use anywhere. The source code is available under GNU General Public License. ALEX PKB is platform independent. You can run it seamlessly on Windows32/64, Linux32/64, OS X, Solaris, AIX and etc. you can download ALEX for free here.

Sunday, June 27, 2010

Knowledge Management Toolkit

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Knowledge Management Toolkit
Until now, implementing Knowledge Management (KM) has been like nailing jelly to the wall-but not anymore! The Knowledge Management Toolkit provides hands-techniques and tools for making KM happen at your company. You will learn how to use KM to make sure that every important decision is fully informed as you build on your existing intranet, data warehouse, and management of investment projects.

Top researcher Amrit Tiwana in her book entitled The Knowledge Management Toolkit walks you through the development of enterprise KM system from start to finish, showing how each stage can be used as a basis for enhancements.Tiwana then also present the KM case studies from leading companies worldwide, from Nortel to Rolls Royce. When you ready to change the theory of KM from the business schools in the real world competitive advantage starting are here!

Further Reading:
http://www.amazon.com/Knowledge-Management-Toolkit-Practical-Techniques/dp/0130128538

Friday, June 25, 2010

knowledge management techniques

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Knowledge Management (KM) is typically defined as identifying, creating and distributing data representing the experience and skills of an organization. Activities associated with Knowledge Management include documenting both explicit knowledge (that is easily documented and communicated) and tacit knowledge (that may only be understood by one person and therefore not easily documented or communicated.)

Knowledge management processes involve capture, reuse and measurement. Popular KM strategies aspire to improve operational performance to gain competitive advantages.

Bellows are some techniques can be used for Knowledge management technoques:

Building Knowledge Repositories
Using Collaborative Web Conferencing Tools
Using Social Software

Source:
http://www.ehow.com/way_5296246_knowledge-management-techniques.html

Thursday, June 24, 2010

organizational knowledge

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organizational knowledge

It is often said that an organization’s most valuable assets are the people it employs. The ideas, experiences, expertise and knowledge contained in the mind of an individual may be worth more to an organization than can be quantified with respect to how that knowledge is applied each day to save time, reduce costs, and advance the organization’s initiatives.

How can an organization capitalize on individual knowledge?
How do individuals contribute to subunits or groups within the organization to build and perpetuate group knowledge?
How does individual and group knowledge become organizational knowledge that can be captured, reused, and applied to achieve measurable positive effects for the organization?
When might extra-organizational knowledge be used to further increase or enhance the capabilities of an organization?

This paper explores these questions, first by defining each knowledge type, then by examining how knowledge moves through an organization and becomes valuable organizational intellectual capital.

Further Reading:
http://knol.google.com/k/defining-organizational-knowledge

Wednesday, June 23, 2010

Knowledge Software

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Knowledge Software
knowledge software allows you to share knowledge within your company only from an intranet or on your website with a firm knowledge base ranking. This helps to reduce customer support, improving staff efficiency and eliminates wasted time when searching for knowledge about different systems such as paper documents and shared folders. This software is used by thousands of small businesses, organizations, universities and corporate organizations. A software like this can also be used to meet the different needs of the organization.

There are a lot of knowledge software acquired in the market and they have a big role. Major role may vary from one application to another software. However, there are only a few normal roles with virtually all knowledge management software. By leveraging the clients, colleagues and staff can access the knowledge on the Internet or locally and a strong group of management knowledge-based design software makes it easy approval in the dissemination of knowledge only with groups or people you choose.

knowledge software really helps in removing inbound client support. In general, there is an interactive interface to help make it easier to find answers to your questions. He added that to reduce demand from clienteles in the form of mail or through calls to the support department. This kind of software can also be integrated into your support or contact form to give a direct answer to client requests when they write, then eliminate any further support. Off-system response in the Knowledge base software can be incorporated in the form of a web site. Knowledge items and attachments can only be seen by the client. Known search term also makes it easier to seek help sooner.

knowledge software offers document distribution services between staff members who attended made it easy for them to find, share and print a document the company level, and the method further. Forget your network or email fileservers - now everyone can have equal access to form one document from the same location. The documents can be accessed from one computer connected to the web or intranet. Loop inbuilt guidance to help staff improve their knowledge.

By using the software Basic knowledge-management, companies can also significantly reduce the time required to train their staff. If a company makes their processes, and strategies gained in the knowledge base, it would certainly help in the quick staff training. The time required to train staff to reduce significantly also provide new staff members on hand-to-face for knowledge. This objective can be achieved by uploading documents and processes that companies can quickly search and indexing. Categories can be restricted as well as a per-level password protected access rights to users. All items help can be exported or printed in different formats, such as that provided by a specific-knowledge-base software to store. These items can be assigned to assist new entrants to the training itself and the reading goal.

knowledge software and to provide special characteristics such as publish and manage your articles, business processes, user guide and white paper.

Source:
http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Jamie_Hanson

Monday, June 21, 2010

Knowledge Sharing in an Organization

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Knowledge Sharing in an Organization
Knowledge Sharing in an Organization - Three Types of People

In the past the knowledge that you know is your competitive advantage directly. Sharing knowledge is considered as an act of treason against himself. Today you are sharing knowledge is what differentiates you from your friends. Going from one culture to another best difficult, but knowing the kind of person who works with knowledge will help design strategies for change.

According to Karen Stephenson, a graduate of the Harvard School of Design, there are three types of people when it comes to sharing knowledge. Hub, pulse-takers, and gatekeepers, each type has a special role in how knowledge and information being transferred throughout the organization. A Knowledge Management System is generally set in place to help people share what they know for everyone to use.

The Hub - Think of this as the type of person who collects all sorts of information and offer up free. This type of person would be great as a change agent for preparing a new Knowledge Management System. Collect and store information on a system that can be accessed by anyone, so the total number of all the knowledge available to the entire organization.

Pulse-takers - people are building relationships with people within the organization. If they need to know something, they'll find someone who they know to get the information. Building the type of network can be time consuming. Network works only for the people who built it and the people that they have a relationship with. Someone new to the organization will be at a loss at the earliest.

Gatekeeper - gatekeeper is the person who controls the flow of information around the organization. Think about this man Police Information. They might know something, but not willing to give up information unless approved for distribution. In some cases the gatekeeper necessary. However, the gatekeeper is a barrier to sharing knowledge.

The three types of transfer of knowledge and information within an organization is far more efficient than a formal knowledge management systems. Most of this information is considered secret or knowledge which is transmitted from one person to another. The purpose of knowledge management systems is to transform tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge, knowledge that is written.

When you conduct an audit of how information and knowledge created and shared within your organization, keep in mind the type of person. Each has strengths and weaknesses that can help make changes to the organizational culture of knowledge.

Source:
http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Brad_Holt

Saturday, June 19, 2010

Lotus Notes Domino and Microsoft Integration of CRM

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Lotus Notes Domino and Microsoft Integration of CRM
Well, even if the combination might look very unusual, we see the coexistence of two systems, especially in large corporations, non-profit organizations. Technically Lotus Notes Domino has parallel structure, including Domino email server. Lotus extremely flexible and you can program yourself or buy a CRM CRM for Lotus, but Microsoft CRM has Microsoft SQL Server database and very simple Sales automation module. Let's look at the reasons for integration and scenario. Ensure that any specific cases that require custom programming, tuning and support.

o Why Lotus & MS CRM? There are several reasons to combine the two. First - Lotus Domino has a very long history and market presence in more than 15 years old. Companies may have a business system built on Lotus Notes Domino platform and are not desirable or even feasible from the viewpoint of complexity to that phase. The second reason is the possibility of IT strategy to balance the multiple platforms in order to avoid over-dependence on a single vendor (like Microsoft). Maybe there are also licensing issues - if the company has several hundred licensed Lotus - did not want to lose them and pay for the 200 users of CRM Microsoft. In this case maybe MS CRM solutions for Sales department and all other departments should remain at Lotus

  • Lotus Domino as a message to MS CRM. No need to program a custom piece, just use the MS of CRM - Lotus Domino connector, supported by Alba Spectrum Technologies. Has advanced facilities, versus the standard MS CRM Exchange connector. Instead of using a GUID in email headers, scan Contacts, Accounts, Leads email for matching.

  •  Lotus Workflow. Workflow is possible in Lotus and MS CRM. In the Lotus, but the most advanced workflow. You can use Lotus Workflow and then after completion of transfer of control to Microsoft CRM. This is typical Microsoft CRM SDK (MS CRM programs) and Lotus Java programming from the Lotus Agent. Lotus workflow can work with integration to / Accounting ERP your application, such as Microsoft Great Plains, Navision, Axapta, however this is outside the scope of this article.

Lotus o / CRM Activity Synchronization. One of the requirements is the synchronization of Microsoft's popular CRM Activities: Appointment, Phone Call, Fax, etc with Lotus TOTOs. This will allow users to work on the same project share the Lotus and MS CRM data space.

Source:
http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Andrew_Karasev

Friday, June 18, 2010

Benefits of Lotus Notes

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Lotus Notes
Many users of Microsoft Outlook applications are encouraged to switch to IBM Lotus Notes e-mail because many benefits associated with the Notes. Some of the benefits, which invites the public to change the client emails from MS Outlook to Lotus Notes, is as follows:
  • Possible Replication in Lotus Notes: Lotus Notes helps you to keep multiple copies of a single database. It's a lot of copies is called "Replicas" on multiple servers or workstations. This will help you to access certain information on different networks in different locations. A major advantage of this replication is that users in one office can make changes in their server a few replicas. And, at the same time, users in some other office can also make changes to the replica from the same database on their servers.
  • Lotus Notes provides the facility to work offline: For example, you can duplicate copy of your Notes mail database of your laptop before leaving office. Now, you can work offline and when you return to the office, you can imitate a back to back on the server.
  • Sharing of documents: Lotus Notes allows people to work on a document, review, and make that comment.
  • Easily directed workflow: Lotus Notes allows you to adjust the route according to the requirements of your job. For example, you fill out the Purchase Order. Once submitted automatically be sent to your Business Manager. He can digitally sign it and send it to Purchasing. They can automatically update the records, and fax the form to the vendor.
  • Easy customization: Lotus Notes is adjusted. You can easily customize your email arrives rules, shipping rules, profiles etc.
  • Document inherits the values of other documents: For example, you can inherit information from original documents when responding to a post on the newsgroup. You can view information, such as when the original document was posted, who posted it, subject headings, and so forth.
  • Modification Log: Lotus Notes to maintain logs to document such modifications are changed and when.
  • Graphics, video, sound: Notes documents (including email) can have graphics, video, and voice along with plain text.
  • Web Publishing: Now, almost all the benefits of Lotus Notes are made available for the Web. This means, you can now access or edit information from Notes databases on the Web as well. Notes databases are automatically converted to HTML.
  • Security: Lotus Notes provides a higher level of security of your information than with Outlook.

  1. The User password can not be modified by the Notes administrator.
  2. The entire database can be encrypted to prevent the user from getting a copy.
  3. Database security level can be built for different users. certain areas of a particular shape can be encrypted so that only those who have a key that could see it. One form may have several fields encrypted with different keys.
  4. Documents can include digital signatures.
  5. Can be prevented from sensitive information submitted by the recipient to others.
All the advantages of using Lotus Notes as email client that encourages users to switch from Outlook to notes. Many Outlook users, who decided to move it, feel the need to transfer them to Outlook PST Data Notes NSF format. Using third party software to convert Outlook Note item is one of the most viable option. There are many tools available around the Item Transfer Outlook to Notes. One such tool SysTools Outlook to Notes software. This is a software solution is simple and intuitive to transfer the PST to Notes. This is one of the most reliable PST to Notes software to convert PST Note item easily, quickly and cost-effective.

Resource:
http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Pamela_Bennet_Broom

Wednesday, June 16, 2010

Service Management Software

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Service Management Software
Service Management Software - What is ITIL?


ITIL is service management framework for service accepted best practices for service delivery and information technology are the foundation for aligning business needs with IT.

ITIL was founded by the British government and is currently in its third version. This is where common sense framework around the practice, giving guidance for the people in their areas should be focused.

The previous version of ITIL version 3 differs from the that they have more than a silo approach to areas such processes as incident, problem, change, service level, and the availability of the release. What ITIL Service Desk practitioners found was that many people still live in their own silos and do not integrate all the aspects required to manage IT to make the process of common sense. For example, many events only management, some management-only problem.

The goal of ITIL is that everything is inter-relate and integrate - you not only do the management of events and then leave the remaining aspects of customer service for others. Version 3 attempts to formalize a better integration of services that IT provides to business. It is far more focused on what IT and business needs to focus on what provides IT services to businesses.

Currently, most businesses today can not operate without IT, but IT should be seen providing appropriate services for business. ITIL Version 3 is a more focused service and suggested that the organization must agree with the business about what services they need IT to provide, and then see how to apply the correct process - to change and improve the process based on input from the business.

Version 2 process is still a major part of ITIL because you will continue to manage incidents and problems, and manage change requests from the business. However, at this time, the silo approach has been removed and there is more overlap so that people can see how they have to pass the incident, problem, change and resolution of customer service throughout the chain.

In the past, anyone who handles incidents could see the incident; anyone who handles the issue will only see the problem. There is no integrated approach and implement ITIL version 2 is very easy to do. However, if you see it as a framework, ITIL, Version 3 makes it more difficult to fall into a single process mindset. Version 3 of the diagram is more intertwined and easier for people to see the overlapping functions and processes.

From the ITIL framework, most of the available tools to try to deal with integrated management field. Many products are certified for ITIL and Pink Elephant is one such organization that verifies the product supports the ITIL framework. However, not proscriptive ITIL - it does not specify that you need to do this like that. One of those problems while they try to implement ITIL is that they expect to be able to pick up a book and said "if I want to manage change in my organization using ITIL, this is what I should do." ITIL does not do that. This is a best practice framework and it is expected that you take what you need to ensure that it runs smoothly for your organization.

There is no right or wrong way to implement ITIL. What that means that every tool that you see will be slightly different. There are no prescriptive way of doing things, and each instrument has its own way suggested. Tools do go some way towards suggesting how you can manage the various processes, but there are always elements need to match your organization, your business practices. This is where selection becomes an important tool. You need a very flexible tool, because you do not want to establish your process to the tool - you want to customize the tool for your process.

It comes to time and money. If you do not have the time and money then you can take off the shelf tools and pleased with what he was doing. With time and money, you can set the service management software tool to your process.

Source:
ezinearticle.com

Monday, June 14, 2010

What is ITIL V3

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What is ITIL V3
IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is an excellent tool of best practices, carefully organized and edited to provide readers with information and a structure for how to plan, implement, maintain and improve services delivered to the customer organization.

ITIL is owned by the Office of Government Commerce (OGC) and is a copyright and trademark protected. IT Service Management Forum (itSMF) is a leading, independent, not for profit organization owned and run by it's members throughout the world - to promote and exploit the benfits of ITIL.

Often times, when people first read one of the core ITIL V3 books, you hear some common themes: "ITIL is only common sense and," yeah, we do have here - so what? "

Well guess what?

ITIL V3 is common sense - but unfortunately it is rarely found in Service Organizations.

At the heart of ITIL V3 is a core set of five books first published in 2007, namely: Service Strategy, Service Design, Service Transition, Service Operation and Continual Service Improvement. Each book describes the process, procedures, roles, metrics and more that all organizations can review, customize and configure to their own satisfaction.

Please Note: ITIL V3 author has no 'magic wand' so that the full text is meant to be a good starting point for you and your organization. All the best practices provided should be considered in light of your organization's strategic goals and then Carefully adapted for integration into your working practices.

ITIL V3 has evolved over 20 years of ITIL, Process Service and expert writers. This is the core of ITIL - it's a best practice starting point - to consider, re-worked and carefully implemented into an organization that is suitable for business needs.

verbatum No, to-the letter - of-the-book, will eventually force the implementation of more than 10% effective for any organization. Every place is different. Every business is different. Every customer is different.

During the last decade, thousands of IT Service professionals have been providing feedback and helping to enhance the core OGC ITIL texts - so you can be sure that THE # 1 place to start when implementing strategic IT Service Management.

rapidly in recent years, worldwide standards for IT Service Management ISO / IEC 20000 has been 'tracked' through the International Standards Committee to permit Service Provider to obtain certification in the standard. In fact, although not mandated, many key aspects of ISO20000 ITIL need to be implemented, namely the ITIL V2 IT Service Support Service Delivery and IT processes. Note: ISO20000 does NOT specify that ITIL is a prerequisite for certification - but a place to start would be logical to adopt best practices.

A few home truths about ITIL - having observed its implementation in various disguises to many clients over the last 10 years: -

    * ITIL requires investment in time, effort and energy of the people - because there are large costs
    * ITIL requires a capable and experienced people - people who ITIL foundation and ITIL managers certificate
    * ITIL requires the transformation program to own and guide the efforts of smaller, but still important project.
    * ITIL requires active, senior buy-in. No-buy in - no ITIL. There are loud.
    * ITIL and therefore requires to be understood at senior levels and therefore the ROI in ITIL must be deliberately planned and realized
    * ITIL is the 'transformation' of change - so that means people change roles; people have new ways to work and communicate, the organization began to hardwire the customer voice into the heart of IT / Technology

Some further considerations: -

* It's hard to do; people play politics with their kingdom; people protect their functional silo; people resist change

* It takes time, to plan, to design, build, to test, for 'DO'

Essentially you have to change aircraft engines while 'that' plane was still in flight - meaning - YOU have to change the way providing technology services - without affecting the quality and availability of services.

ITIL is all about service. No Tools. Not Technology. No Proc. In my opinion, they are only important component of what the end goal is.

[Incidentally - there is NO such thing as an ITIL compliant tool. ITIL is a set of best practice - not''which can meet the standards for. Always the wrong tool vendors say they are 'appropriate'. Gartner agrees with me on this.]

ITIL makes you think deeply about who did what, when, how, by what means, how well they did, they could do better, how customers perceive us ... This is a constant which raised some questions EVERY DAY when you apply and run the ITIL-based organizations.

This is a question for the IT Service Success RIGHT!

Benefits of ITIL are many - but here are some frequently reported: -

    * ITIL break down functional silo's, gets people and information flow, to get people talking, all for the benefit of the Customer (service recipient)
    * ITIL helped reorganize the IT / Technology for Customer focused. Roles, responsibilities, information gathering and reporting requirements of all to encourage meaningful information and timely to the right Customer interfaces
    * ITIL makes people think from the perspective of the Service; no technology silo perspective.
    * ITIL reduces costs and helps with automation to reduce costs. ITIL also lets you do more with less from time to time - to avoid the increase in staff costs in the future.
    * ITIL can be applied in the 'groups' best practices to achieve swift victory''organization
    * ITIL should be fun. A way to do things around here with people fully involved and included in key decisions.


The core of all this ...

Is IT Service Analyst.Manager sitting in their seats, doing the right thing at the right time, with the lowest possible cost, high-quality manner - to play their role in providing services that customers pay for - continued to do it the first time - and improve things where possible?

Is ITIL a kind of 'holy grail'?

No.

Does ITIL have been achieved?

Of course! In a lot of different companies around the world. ITIL has been around for many years.

Source:
http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Robin_Yearsley

ITIL Implementation Succes Factor

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ITIL Implementation Succes Factor

Any IT manager who wants to pursue travel by applying IT Management Services Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) need to understand two very important factor well in advance.

o The first factor is to have dedicated, trained and committed process owners.

If you want to have a successful process of Incident Management which is under continuous improvement, you will need somebody who is ultimately responsible for that success and who can dedicate time and attention to encourage and to make sure it really happened. Many organizations are making one mistake follows:

o Process owner which means there is no one who is dedicated to promote certain process.

There is a process owner, but he is bogged down in day to activities of reactive days or "more important" business-driven projects and thus do not have time for unnecessary "red tape" such as ITIL.

o There are more than one process owner for a particular process - a classic mistake. The idea of ITIL is to have consistent processes across the organization for single and has two chefs in the kitchen "process" that will definitely mess up the cake. Who will ultimately be responsible if there is more than one owner? large companies that have successfully implemented ITIL have only one owner of the company throughout the process, even if there are many divisions spread throughout the world. This ensures that this process is consistent across all divisions and help break down barriers between departments and divisions.

The main problem here is that companies do not want to spend the money on dedicate resources for process owners. Clearly, the process owner can have a split role, doing other work, especially in smaller companies. During the other roles are not reactive fire. One person can also be made responsible for more than one process. Although these processes have a similar focus. Change, Configuration and Release roles can be divided by one person in such a small company. I believe in the role of big corporations must be filled by people who are dedicated, and companies that do not fill this role was not serious enough about ITIL and is most likely a lack of management commitment.

Which brings us to the second, but perhaps the most important success factors, namely management commitment?

If you are responsible for the implementation of ITIL, make sure you have the commitment from the top; otherwise ITIL may become a failed IT project throwing time and money wasted.

And management commitment does not mean, "the manager said that" his commitment. Managers must walk and talk ITIL and continue to show commitment.
In practical terms this means empowering staff through professional training, and other equipment, appointing the right person at the right roles and managing by ITIL, for example, demanding the right reports and taking action ...

Kotter's eight steps for organizational change is actually a good guideline for top management to follow.

Management commitment is probably the most important success factor for ITIL, but in my experience, perhaps the most difficult to find. That's why a lot of ITIL implementations just become a black hole sucking money.

I think there are many IT managers who are under this misconception, that ITIL is a silver bullet to fix all their problems. Just install the ITIL (almost like installing a new technology) and everything will be OK. What they do not understand is that ITIL is a major organizational change, including cultural change. We usually just focus on technology, but now we must focus on the customer.

Another reason for the low management commitment is also that ITIL is usually an internal IT department of business and not the immediate needs of the business. ITIL is a methodology for improving IT and not like a business.

To overcome this, an ITIL project should become a business requirement and commitment is needed from all the way to the top, from the CEO.

Source:
http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Arno_Esterhuizen

Sunday, June 13, 2010

Business Service Management

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Business Service Management
By Peter Goldin

Looking back, the emergence of business service management (BSM) seem inevitable. This new generation of tools helps IT organizations manage technology infrastructures within the context of the main services they provide to their customers. BSM tools are critical enablers for the increasingly popular process that focuses on IT Service Management (ITSM) approach.

What is driving this evolution is related to BSM and IT management paradigm? Executive Consultant Troy DuMoulin Pink Elephant, an ITIL program and consulting firm, explains, "The interest in ITIL, the evolution of legislation such as SOX (Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002), and an interest in standards is symptomatic of something much more simple in the basic focus of the grow in the formalization and legislation is an awareness of exposure and reliance that the business is in IT .. Previously, IT is seen as an enabler, but somehow supportive but separate from the business process itself. But now there is a realization that there is no real separation between the process business and the underlying IT services and systems. "

Information technology has become so important for businesses today - so ubiquitous in every aspect - that most businesses really can not function without it anymore. Even a simple manual tasks such as filling the car with gas or cash the check now require the support of IT systems.

This high dependence on IT has placed the company at a crossroads. They were forced to address this new dependency by putting processes and technology to ensure that IT serves business do its job effectively. So move to the BSM can be viewed as a natural reaction to the new way to interact with IT and enable the business.

"BSM is one way for companies to agree on what business expectations, and manage IT to the agreed performance expectations," clarifies Brian Childers, a consultant who also serves the Board of Directors for the itSMF USA, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting the practice of The best in IT management services. "Once we understand the expectations, we can build the process to be consistent with expectations, and manage against them."

Vendors respond quickly to the imperative of this new service management. Leading software providers - such as HP, BMC, Mercury and Managed Objects - BSM has introduced a new version of their popular tool to help revolutionize the way IT managers to assess performance and take advantage of technological knowledge to meet business needs. And new kinds of automated, self-learning software from companies like Netuitive, making it easier than ever for managers to cut their technology silos and tie together existing management tools.

"Over the years - especially during the IT build-out fanatic from the late 1990s - the company assembled a mishmash of IT systems within their organizations," added Tony Gilbert, a vice president at Netuitive. "The result today is a set of components in a heterogeneous IT environment, and the silos of individual departments to manage each. The right set of tools enable BSM to tie together all these pieces of technology in an enterprise and to monitor IT from the perspective of providing the services."

BSM tools help IT groups see the technology in terms of how they impact business services, and zero-in on the specific causes of performance problems that affect the service - a company when they do not have the ability to manage IT technology only through the silo. New BSM tools can also enable the company to prioritize resources based on the relative importance of business services. For example, a brokerage firm can manage online commerce or online banking services holistically, not piecemeal in the silo: the server group, database group, application group.

More than Just Technology

But to actually change management approach is not easy. "Over the last 20 years our industry has been focused on technology management of IT Management. It has been a domain, such as mainframe, network and domain databases people are not really living in isolation .." Pink Elephant DuMoulin continued, "A basic premise is that there is a business requirement for IT to understand how any given IT component associated with each other and how these devices support, or potentially disable business processes. When you understand IT from this perspective you see that You can not be managed by the technology or device you need to understand the relationship between the two devices. and how they relate to IT services, and ultimately how IT services are consumed by the business. "

Those factors remain a problem as well. For many organizations, BSM often requiring changes in corporate culture. IT personnel must learn that they not only manage the boxes and the applications, but really provide a service that consumes a business to survive and thrive. Most experts agree that the tools out there, and are necessary, but they go hand in hand with the change process and change the way companies view the value of IT.

"Some people believe that no matter what technology you use as long as you have the proper process in place," commented Ken Wendle, ITSM Solution Lead at the HP. "But I always said that IT service management is a combination of people and processes, enabled by appropriate technology, all working in synergy with each other. It is about smart blending technology to activate and implement the correct processes, which will then enable organizations to conduct business priorities. "

"I've seen a company that puts the proper process in place, and train the right person, but then made silo process," HP Wendle also notes. "But was cut silo ITSM technology, not only to create a set of process silos on top of them. ITSM is about taking a holistic approach."

BSM Continues Evolution

BSM Where to go from here? "One of the ingredients is missing today is the registration of the business community," believe itSMF's Childers. "They need to understand what BSM and why they want to support all that I do not think a better job by bringing onboard a business standpoint, BSM will progress faster .."

"I do not think the company has been getting all the benefits of the technology that they can," agreed Wendle HP. "Business people need to understand and appreciate what IT can do to help the business side of organizations."

Clearly there is work to be done, but the implementation of ITSM and BSM tools that support it continue to gain momentum as more and more companies realize that this is a prerequisite for success in this new world where business and IT has become one.

"The prediction is that over the next five years, ITSM will impact such as the ERP system, or maybe more," concluded itSMF's Childers. "I do not think ITSM will go, because too much sense." And BSM vendors will continue to develop innovative new tools to help.
Memphis, USA

Source:
http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Peter_Goldin

Saturday, June 12, 2010

Knowledge Management and Service Management

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Knowledge Management and Service Management
For a concept that dates back to the beginning of time, knowledge management suffers from an identity crisis. Some users lump knowledge management in with its younger, somewhat distant cousins, content management and document management. Others define knowledge management by taking a cue from Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart's famous definition of obscenity: "I know it when I see it."

In reality, knowledge management goes back as far as human memory. It evolved onto stone tablets, books, file cabinets and sticky notes. But knowledge management in the IT world has always suffered from a lack of context, a lack of a problem that KM is clearly designed to fix. Service management may be the answer.

IT service management demands a customer-centric view of IT. It helps the company's IT department achieve three fundamental goals: Achieve customer satisfaction, exceed customer expectations and manage customer perceptions.

"The service management framework lives and and breathes with knowledge," said Michael McGaughey, Service Management Framework Architect at TXU, the leading energy retailer in Texas, which serves five million customers in North America and Australia. "There's a lot of knowledge used across the process silos."

McGaughey is tasked with designing and implementing a framework based on ITIL, the IT Infrastructure Library, which documents the implementation of a framework for IT service management. ITIL itself makes service management and knowledge management perfectly complementary concepts. Different aspects of service management generate knowledge, depend on knowledge and use knowledge, but ITIL does not give specific instructions on how to store or manage the knowledge -- only how to use it. That's where knowledge management comes in.

Knowledge management is not a separate process, but is used alongside service management, according to McGaughey. And while there is nearly an infinite amount of knowledge management applications available from software vendors, as well as home-grown solutions, each IT department will have to deal with managing knowledge in a service management environment in its own way.

McGaughey suggests there are four questions that are key to developing a knowledge management concept for an IT service management framework:

# What kind of knowledge do you need?
# How do you get it?
# How do you store it?
# What do you do with it?

"One of the great myths of knowledge management is that it's a technology solution," McGaughey said. "It's not." This, of course, presents a different problem. "IT people are keen on implementing a piece of technology to solve a problem," he said.

Even to those well-versed in ITIL and service management, knowledge management lies beyond the scope of ITIL because each organization has unique needs and issues.

Making Other Processes Better

Knowledge management as an IT concept has a lot to gain from working within an IT service management framework. One of the factors that led to the development of its identity crisis is that knowledge management offers very little in the way of a value proposition by itself. The value it offers is in making other processes better.

The principles and concepts of knowledge management can be used to share and transfer knowledge from the different "silos" of a service management framework, such as capacity management, problem management and incident management. It allows information to be shared, stored and used by each process in a service management environment.

In some ways knowledge management and service management can be considered a "chicken and egg"-type problem. The two concepts can rely on each other so heavily it's difficult to tell which one came first. In reality, they are different processes that can help each other.

"One of the knocks on knowledge management is that it doesn't have a context," McGaughey said. "Service management gives it one."

Source :
http://www.intranetjournal.com/articles/200309/ij_09_04_03a.html

Friday, June 11, 2010

challenges in knowledge management

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challenges in knowledge management
Most of the challenges in knowledge management are mainly derived from knowledge re-type situation and goals. Knowledge workers can generate their own knowledge that re-time work. However, each knowledge reuse situation is unique in terms of requirements and context. Every time the difference between knowledge reuse situations are ignored, the organization faced many challenges in implementing knowledge management practices. Some common challenges generated by these and other factors which are listed below.

Accuracy Data: Valuable raw data generated by certain groups within an organization may need to be validated before they turn into normal or consistent content.

Interpretation of Data: Information obtained by one group may need to be mapped to a context that means standards for others in the organization.

Relevance Data: Quality and value of knowledge relies on relevance. Knowledge which has no relevance only adds complexity, cost and risk to the organization without compensation benefits. If the data does not support or actually answering the question being asked by the user, it requires the appropriate meta-data (data about data) which will be held in a knowledge management solution.

Ability of data to support / reject the hypothesis: Is the information really support decision-making? Does knowledge management solutions including statistical or rule-based model for workflow in which questions are asked?

Application of knowledge management solutions: Does organizational culture foster and support the voluntary use of knowledge management solutions?

Basic knowledge tends to be very complex and large: When knowledge of the database becomes very large and complex, placing the organization in a fix. Organizations can clear a very old file system, thus diluting their own knowledge management initiative. Or, could form another team to clean up the database files over, which increases costs substantially. In addition to this, the real challenge for an organization able to monitor the various departments and ensure that they are responsible for keeping them clean excessive file repository.

Source:
http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Kristy_Annely

Thursday, June 10, 2010

Issues In Knowledge Management

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Issues In Knowledge Management

By
Murali (PhD. MIS, Knowledge Management, Multimedia Uni Malaysia)

My experience from a short stint in the USA, during my PhD work suggests that the main issues with sucessfull implementation of KM initiaves are:

1. Difficulty in quantifying the value of KM and KM (systems) investment.
2. The lack of a knowledge sharing culture both intra and inter-organizations.
3. The What's in for me" syndrome - weak blending of KM initiatives to that of the benfits schemes
4. What- KM? What on earth is that? Awareness and mis-conception of the KM notion.



Resource :
http://www.kmtalk.net/index.php?topic=expsharing

Wednesday, June 9, 2010

Knowledge Management Values

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Knowledge Management Values
Why "do" KM? Isn’t it just common sense? An intelligent way of working? The answer for me is yes it is indeed all of these, but KM facilitates and leverages all of those good ideas that might not come to anything otherwise, it supports innovation, enforces some of those good habits, more importantly it can reveal what measures would actually help an organisation to improve quality, save time and reduce risk.

A simple overview of the difference between conventional knowledge sharing and what is gained by using knowledge management is shown in a presentation from Óttar Erlingsson and Espen Grødem.

Source:
http://knowledgeconnections.blogspot.com/2010/03/what-value-does-knowledge-management.html

Tuesday, June 8, 2010

Knowledge management Measurement

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Knowledge management Measurement
A thought provoking post here from Brad Hinton on Brad Hinton - Plain Speaking, which looks at some of the issues around measuring Knowledge Management. Brad argues that hard data (facts and figures) often doesn't represent what activities are being undertaken by Knowledge Management teams.

He goes on to say "We therefore often have a problem conveying the full story of our work in knowledge management since we do not always have the facts and figures senior executives want. We often provide information that is easy to collect but does not provide real meaning. The classic example is in using hit rates for intranet pages and web sites. High hit rates can often indicate confusion just as well as indicating purposeful traffic"

Brad goes on to discuss some of the techniques he uses to "Measure Knowledge Management". This is a really interesting article, which is well worth reading for an introduction to this area.

Source:
http://knowledgeconnections.blogspot.com/2009/07/knowledge-management-measurement.html

Monday, June 7, 2010

Knowledge Revolution

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Knowledge Revolution
By: Christian Sarkar

Knowledge management guru Thomas Davenport discusses the future of knowledge management in the Internet era. The acknowledged dean of knowledge management, Thomas Davenport spends his time teaching individuals and organizations how to maximize their investments in information technology.

The application of knowledge depends on people, not technology, Davenport has explained in books such as Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They Know and Information Ecology: Mastering the Information and Knowledge Environment.

I asked Davenport to expound on his views using an old but reliable knowledge management tool – the telephone. In this interview, he talks about the future of knowledge management within large organizations, and how the Internet is changing the way people share knowledge.

Do you feel the Web has changed the way knowledge management has taken hold in the corporate world?

Certainly it's been a huge factor. I think two technologies have been the primary drivers of the rise of knowledge management. The Web is one of them, and Lotus Notes is the other. A lot of the early adopters used Lotus Notes, but a lot of the more recent adopters are Web-based.

The Web is cheaper and simpler, and hypertext is very well suited for showing linkages between different types of knowledge and ideas. More and more vendors are developing capabilities you can use for knowledge management. I think the Web is now probably equal to, if not surpassing Lotus Notes in functionality.

With the new emphasis on customer relationship management, sales force automation, one-to-one relationships, etc., do you find companies paying attention to customer knowledge in a serious way?

Well, there's a lot of energy around transaction systems involving customers. My only concern is that not much of the transaction data is actually turned into knowledge in most organizations. For example, you have these customer asset management systems that a lot of companies are using, Vantive, Scopus, Clarify, etc.

The primary emphasis of those systems seems to be tracking customer support transactions and trouble tickets, rather than resolving problems or taking the knowledge you get from those systems and passing it along to, say, product developers. There's a lot of potential there, but we need to focus more on the knowledge end, and a little less on the data end.

What do you mean by that?

Well, throughout the brief history of the information age, we've focused very heavily on getting basic transaction systems in place. I suppose you can argue that they're doing that as a prerequisite for analyzing and understanding the data and turning it into knowledge. But the problem is, in many cases, we never get around to turning data into knowledge.

If you spend all your time collecting data, you don't have time left to think?

Exactly. So for example, all these point-of-sales systems involving scanner data – everybody collects scanner data, but very few retail organizations do much with it. In fact, some have started to throw it away, because they figure if they're not going to analyze it, why keep it around? With big enterprise systems like SAP, my research suggests that very few companies have started to change the way they manage with this ERP data; it's all about doing basic business transactions, but nobody is turning the SAP data into SAP knowledge.

Another problem is measurement. How do you quantify whether you're succeeding in your knowledge management effort?

It's a bit hypocritical to measure knowledge management that way. In the U.S. alone, we spend over a trillion dollars a year on information technology, and nobody has ever figured out any good way to measure its impact on productivity. So, I'm not sure its fair [to measure knowledge management that way].

There are ways to measure the impact of knowledge management – not at the level of the organization, but for particular processes and functions. You can certainly measure how many customer support calls per hour you dealt with before [versus] after; how many people you didn't have to hire; how much more quickly the sales force is coming up the learning curve in terms of selling products.

But what we cannot do, and what I think is a pretty bad idea, is to try to create an intellectual capital "balance sheet." I met today with some people from Skandia, who finally agreed with me that you can't really put knowledge on a balance sheet. They've made some interesting efforts to measure intellectual capital; I'm not sure I agree with a lot of the measures they've chosen.

Do you view hiring the right people as a success factor in knowledge management? You have to hire people who are interested in learning, don't you think?

Sometimes I think that intellectual curiosity is genetically determined. I always say, if people don't check out your website before you hire them, chances are not very good they'll check out your knowledge repository after you hire them.

Do you see an increase in the number of companies that reward their employees for sharing knowledge? I was talking to a business development manager who said that it made no difference what database he had, he couldn't get his salespeople to write down anything after they visited the customer.

It's a cultural thing in a lot of organizations. There have been some limited attempts to do that, primarily in consulting firms. For example, they'll do technical things like saying you can't get a project number for a client project unless you describe what the project is, beforehand. Or they give people some sense of how well they share, or create, or use knowledge, when they're evaluated for their performance. But even among companies that are doing it, it's pretty mechanical; it's not clear how serious they are about it.

Do you feel there's a relationship between the end of reengineering and the arrival of ERP? That ERP really provided companies with a reengineering solution, a system they could adapt and reengineer their business around?

There's certainly a relationship. When the need to change the way of doing business didn't go away, and they realized that they needed to put in these systems for Year 2000 purposes anyway, the message was: "Well, this is sort of reengineering in the form of a computer system." They were all quite happy to say, "Fine, I'll pay a few hundred million bucks and get reengineering along with a totally integrated real-time, cross-functional system." So there's definitely a close relationship. SAP and ERP probably helped center the energy around reengineering more quickly than if they hadn't been around.

Do you see any knowledge management systems used in strategy development and strategic decision making?

One of my big complaints about the knowledge management work done thus far is that it's too tactical and too focused on particular functions and processes within an organization – making them more efficient and effective. Very few knowledge management projects are transformational and strategic. I think it would be a good idea to do more of that, but I can't say I've seen too much of it.

I have this article in the July-August issue of the Harvard Business Review about how companies should be thinking about ERP from the standpoint of strategy and organizational change and new people skills that will be required. Some are thinking about it from a process standpoint, but that's about the extent of the business change they address. And even, increasingly, companies are saying, "We'll jam this thing in and make the process changes later."

The weekly trade journals are full of ERP horror stories…

These horror stories involve [ERP] taking a lot longer and costing a lot more to put these things in than people had anticipated. But you're not just putting in a computer system, you're making dramatic changes in how the organization works, and it isn't too surprising that it takes a long time and costs a lot of money to do.

These systems work very well from a technical standpoint, and they're every person's dream. From the beginning of the information age, we wanted these integrated systems all working off a common database that could be used to run the entire company. But now that we have the technical capability, you've got to change the organization to take advantage of it, and that is an extremely difficult thing to do! Plus, you have a lot of managers saying, "Tell me why I should change the way I do business just to suit an information system." So it's very controversial as well.

Taken from http://www.onewwworld.com

Sunday, June 6, 2010

Groupware and Organizational Learning

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Groupware and Organizational Learning

By Richard Karash


Today's information technology projects, including Groupware implementation, aren't just systems projects -- they involve a cultural change. Approached narrowly, they will encounter resistance, inertia, and even subterfuge. We need to approach them with the same tools we would apply to organizational culture changes.

Groupware applications have been slow to take-off, despite their obvious benefits of collaboration and sharing. Why should we be surprised? Without computer mediation, it has been hard to get real sharing and collaboration in our organizations, and including technology in the equation may be making things worse, not better. The limiting factor is not technology, but our theories, tools, and methods for achieving major culture change in organizations. In the past few years, the Learning Organization concepts have shed new light on this field. The purpose of this paper is a brief tour of the Learning Organization and what we've learned about the relationship to Groupware.

Groupware is synergistic with the Learning Organization concepts. The principles and disciplines of the Learning Organization can substantially help achieve the change involved in today's technology projects. If Groupware can truly support communication, collaboration, and coordination, then it will play an important enabling role for the Learning Organization.
In this paper, I will follow the definitions and disciplines of the Learning Organization as outlined by Senge and by Nonaka and Takeuchi.

Most of my career has been as a manager in high-tech entrepreneurial organizations, and I am now a practicing organizational consultant. Although I have some technical background, I'm a Groupware user, not a Groupware expert. I don't expect you to accept without challenge anything I say here. But, I do hope that by sharing my experiences and beliefs, and by being a provocateur, this may launch something for some among you who read this.

THE LEARNING ORGANIZATION

What's a Learning Organization?

Senge has defined a Learning Organization in terms of continuous development of knowledge and capacity.[1] He and other researchers have identified disciplines and processes that seem to be associated with building a Learning Organization.

Following Senge, I will use these definitions:
Knowledge: Capacity for effective action.
Learning: Increasing knowledge, that is, increasing capacity for effective action.
Learning Organization: When the organization as a whole and the people who comprise it are continually increasing their capacity to produce the results they really want to produce.

In simple terms, we use learning in the sense of learning to do, not in the sense of knowing things.
A learning organization harnesses the collective intelligence and commitment at all levels of the organization. Although this may seem like motherhood, we still refer to the senior person in a group as the "head," and it was not so long ago that the majority of the people in an organization might be called "hands." Organizations in general have a long way to go before they can truly be called Learning Organizations.

Further Reading:
http://www.kmtalk.net/article.php?story=20041218003150905

Friday, June 4, 2010

Future Knowledge Worker Management

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Future Knowledge Worker Management
From Work-For-Hire to Intellectual Capital Co-Ownership
(By Savas Papadopoulos)

The last 50 years caused a major transformation in the industrial landscape. The manager's emphasis shifted from technology and manufacturing management to service and ultimately to knowledge management. The internet has revolutionized the way business is conducted across borders and cultures and it also made knowledge easily available. Entrepreneurs now have a way to reach markets worldwide at little cost. This places them at a new stronger position due to lower capital requirements to establish a business and has given more bargaining power symmetry to knowledge workers than in the past. Knowledge workers are therefore different and need to be managed differently as they tend to be more loyal to their professions rather than the organizations they work for. One major challenge for human resource managers apart from recruiting and retaining knowledge workers is to find a way to motivate them. This paper rejects work-for-hire arrangements and instead advocates shared knowledge ownership scenarios which can generally result in a better outcome for all stakeholders.

Further Reading:
http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Savas_Papadopoulos

Thursday, June 3, 2010

Knowledge Enterprises

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Know What and Know How

To use a tired old cliché, information is power. And it's truer now than ever before. As the world inexorably moves towards becoming a knowledge economy, Knowledge Enterprises are coming to the fore. And even those that are part of the traditional economy, are learning that they need to manage their collective knowledge well to survive. So, how does one define a Knowledge Enterprise? And what makes them tick?

How do you recognize a Knowledge Enterprise? Surprise, surprise! Although you'll find a whole lot of wisdom on the subject at expert sites, there is no standard definition at all. It is generally accepted that Knowledge firms are those where the main line of Enterprise (or product or service) is highly dependent on possessing or applying knowledge. While that may be true of virtually every Enterprise, there are some - for example financial services, consulting or research where knowledge is necessary for the very survival of the enterprise. Perhaps, it is more appropriate to ask which one is not a Knowledge Enterprise!

Such Enterprisees are characterized by high growth, technology intensity, a high rate of obsolescence and are hugely human capital dependent. While the scale may vary from a lone freelance consultant to giant corporations, a Knowledge Enterprise can be set up with relatively low capital. Knowledge resources are unique in the sense that they are used, but never consumed. In fact, sharing knowledge invariably enhances it.

Geographic and time zone divides are even less of a barrier for a Knowledge Enterprise than for one that belongs in the old economy. No wonder that knowledge also flows from a region where it is cheapest or most abundant to places where it is not. The burgeoning Enterprise Process Outsourcing industry is all the proof we need.

Knowledge is not merely an enabler - more often than not, it is a strategic edge. Products and services with a higher knowledge quotient command more respect and higher prices in the marketplace. Watch the rise and rise of Chief Information Officers in most companies!

On the other hand, a Knowledge Enterprise also faces a number of challenges, which must be managed to ensure longevity of the enterprise. First of all, the very ease of information flow can be its undoing - thus, protection of intellectual property and ensuring confidentiality is of paramount importance. We've dealt with this issue earlier in our article on the importance of confidentiality agreements for the legal aspects. Data storage and security is another huge concern for all Enterprises worldwide, and has happily enough for the likes of EASEUS and Data Security Group, spawned off an entirely new industry! Knowledge industries have also to run harder to stay in the same place - with technology becoming obsolete faster than ever, research and development is the very lifeline of a knowledge intensive enterprise. The final and perhaps most important issue, is that knowledge cannot be monetized unless it is locked into a specific system or process. And ironically, that need has created another set of Knowledge Enterprises as well!

http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Akhil_Shahani 

Tuesday, June 1, 2010

Groupware

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Groupware
Groupware is an umbrella term describing the electronic technologies that support person-to-person collaboration. Groupware includes E-mail, Electronic Meeting Systems (EMS), Desktop Video Conferencing (DVC) as well as systems for workflow and business process re-engineering (BPR).

Technologies which support collaboration are in greater demand today than ever before, and, in recognition of that fact, vendors are integrating collaboration technologies into their products. Distributed workforces, information overload, and getting products to market as quickly as possible are just a few of the motivations pushing collaboration technology development.

Definitions of Groupware

Groupware is a relatively new term, first coined in 1978. The following definitions, the most commonly used, are presented by industry leaders:

Intentional group processes plus software to support them. Peter and Trudy Johnson-Lenz, 1978 A co-evolving human-tool system. Doug Englebart, 1988 Computer-mediated collaboration that increases the productivity or functionality of person-to-person processes. David Coleman, 1992.

Groupware Taxonomy

The twelve functional categories listed below form a logical taxonomy which includes a separate category for groupware services, a new category for groupware applications and a special category for the emerging Internet-based collaborative applications and products.

- Electronic Mail and Messaging
- Group Calendaring and Scheduling
- Electronic Meeting Systems
- Desktop Video and Real-time Data Conferencing (Synchronous)
- Non Real-time Data Conferencing (Asynchronous) - Group Document Handling
- Workflow
- Workgroup Utilities and Development Tools
- Groupware Frameworks
- Groupware Services
- Groupware Applications
- Collaborative - Internet-based Applications and Products.

Further Reading:
http://www.collaborate.com/publication/publications_resources_groupware_book_section_1_2.htm