What knowledge society?
Knowledge Community (KC) can be defined as:
"Knowledge communities are groups of people who share common challenges, opportunities or a passion for a particular topic, and who work together to deepen their understanding of the topic through ongoing learning and knowledge sharing." (AIA Knowledge Communities)
Theoretical aspects of knowledge society based on technology management, and managing people who share their knowledge effectively. Sharing of knowledge are dependent on information seekers who need specific types of knowledge. So that they can perform certain tasks with confidence and sources of knowledge that may have all the necessary information. Theoretical aspects are implemented in such a way that effective knowledge sharing is possible between the seeker of knowledge and sources of knowledge. This helps the search terms and resources to realize their needs and resources.
The concept of Knowledge Society mostly comes from what is known as a community of practice (CoP). The term was coined in 1998 by Jean Love, and Etienne Wenger who claimed that the practice of people everywhere and that we are generally involved in a number of them whether in the workplace, school, home, or the interests of our civil and recreation. In some groups we are core members, on the other we are more on the margins. (Smith, 2003)
Towards the end of the last century included the idea of sharing knowledge for use in the business world and form broader than developing CoP known as the "knowledge society".
"The basic difference between the CoP and KC is that the scope of participation of members is clearly defined by the job description (such as the farming community) in the CoP, while in case of participation of members of the KC wide open and include in some cases, all employees working in a large organization" ( Yamazaki, 2004).
KC is the first time to practice by Xerox are confronted with a global IT infrastructure transition project. Top managers decided to launch a knowledge-sharing initiative called the Transition Alliance. The Alliance consists of fifty IT professionals who are responsible for managing 70,000 desktop workstations, nearly 1,200 servers, and networking hardware across five continents. It was observed that the motivation to learn and develop at the individual level appear larger in the structure of society than in other organizations. This has important implications for long-term performance of the participants. (Storck and Hill, 2000) Since then, large companies have been using the KC with documented positive results.
KC based on the idea that knowledge and insight that is created and acquired when humans interact with each other and their environment. Any strategy to implement the KC because it must be stressed on the need for a variety of social interactions, such as one-one conversation, information and communication technology (ICT) tools, discussion groups, research projects and presentations. Storck and Hill (2000) identified six guiding principles that are important to the success of organizational learning. This is stated below and apply for KC in a corporate environment:
-Design a format that promotes interaction of openness and allows for the chance.
-Building upon an organization's culture.
-Indicates the existence of mutual interest, after initial success to solve problems and achieve company goals.
-Leverage aspects of organizational culture that respects the value of collective learning.
Embed knowledge-sharing practices into the group process.
-Establish an environment where knowledge sharing is based on process and cultural norms defined by society than other parts of the organization. (Storck et al,. 2000) Apart from the management of both technology and context in order to provide effective support for learning and sharing knowledge is essential.
In this section, the aim is to clarify where the IT tools support the knowledge society. Most of today's KC on-line, there is very little interest in face to face KC. Tools commonly used for KC because that e-mail, groupware, e-learning systems teleconferencing etc. But there are constraints on the benefits of these technologies. Face-to-face interaction can sometimes be very important for example in developing and strengthening relationships of trust among team members. Most of the knowledge society Knowledge Management component architecture standards that are based on knowledge portals, components, and databases. This architecture acts as a tool to organize and classify knowledge in a skillful manner. In Knowledge Management, Portal is the basic source of knowledge from which community members have started to enter, search, and knowledge access by using various methods of KM. Most of the search tools used by the knowledge society is a system based portal server that can handle different organizations. These tools must be designed so that they follow a top-down design approach. Because of their inherent complexity basic, this is a centralized, inflexible and slow to respond to changes in the knowledge base.
If the knowledge base should be handled by an individual rather than society, the approach will be bottom-up design, and the level complexity of the equipment to a minimum. Of course, all the tools used for infrastructure must be maintained so that they can provide the necessary knowledge in ways that are classified as necessary. Knowledge society using the knowledge asset for applications such as collaborative product development, different business process automation and real-time collaboration for online applications. If the application is user-centric, then the storage costs can be reduced with the help of knowledge assets that are provided and maintained by the society of knowledge. Based on the knowledge base that is managed by the people at large, it is possible to improve the ability of search-based applications. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools can only provide basic infrastructure and environment to support learning. But tools alone are not sufficient to stimulate effective learning in the knowledge society. "The technology but has a central part to play in providing facilities and infrastructure for learning within and between public knowledge if the motivation and the learning context already exists." (Barrett, et al.. 2004)
Discussion: KC Process The process used in the knowledge society are as follows:
1. Creation or construction of knowledge database. This is the main process in the development of information databases, and it must be implemented efficiently so that other processes can use this process again if necessary.
2. Storing knowledge so that it can be used to study and implement the knowledge database. This process is also related to the retrieval of information if data loss is clear.
3. The next transaction process with the transfer of knowledge from one category to another. There are several different methods available for transfer and for anyone of them can be selected according to need. Transfer process is different for different types of users, and can occur at various levels.
4. One other important processes are supported by a community of knowledge is the application. Knowledge base is only useful if he is able to provide useful information for users.
5. The deal last with the learning process, which is useful for organizational knowledge base. It discusses the process by learning what is needed, and why it is needed.
Knowledge communities have their utility in the field of high structure, process and task automation, and stable business environment. Applications must be based on the most suitable conditions with a pre-specified knowledge base. The structure of this application should be able to take advantage of the knowledge society. automation process of this new technology that is used on and based workflow can get a proper backup of the public knowledge with other systems. This application uses the knowledge base generated by the community to achieve lower costs, higher quality, and greater market share for existing products and services. The process of formation of KC is not direct. Needs or context of knowledge sharing must be defined first. So we must focus on where to get knowledge of, namely, that members of the organization or community to focus on. After the community and context knowledge have decided we need to decide on the media. KC Putting in place is not too difficult but to maintain and run this efficiently, especially when community members are expected to have lost interest in the future or if there is lack of trust among users. periodic examination and review are therefore very important to maintain each KC.
Relationship with knowledge management
KC strongly associated with knowledge management. Knowledge Management is to capture, manage, and store knowledge and experience of individual workers and groups within an organization and make this information available to others in the organization. This is KC not too so that we recognize that KC is a very effective tool for knowledge management.
Examples of system KC
A good example of the use of KC at the firm level is the Hewlett Packard IT Resource Center (ITRC) which brings together engineers, internal IT staff and customers. Communities using the intranet or extranet and focused on a particular product or problem. Communities inter-organization has a membership runs in thousands and include topics such as planning and business recovery operating system software. Community participants can ask questions and receive answers in a short time. So, when the system administrator has a problem, they can post electronic signs on the intranet, and receive detailed help on how to proceed in a few minutes. For such communities to succeed, members must have mutual trust. Hewlett Packard associated with mistrust by using a system of user profiles and ratings. Members of the public up to the level of each response from 1 to 10. The response now has a 'credit rating and the problem is difficult queries with ease to assess the utility of this reply. (Barrett, et. Al, 2004.) KC Success stories like that abound in the corporate world today.
It's a fact that people are well-established with the public interest facing similar problems to learn faster when in groups. Interaction between the individual creating the knowledge base is very important for every member of this community. The knowledge society is based on the basic premise. They tried to bring people together mostly using advanced tools currently ICT. KC has found tremendous acceptance in the corporate world because of their simplicity and usefulness. ICT tools best work in creating the KC when the stimulus is enough to learn already exist in society. ICT tools have the constraint, however, and face-toface interaction becomes important at times. For KC to succeed there must be a learning context, enough members to contribute knowledge, media and mutual trust among members. If these requirements occur, KC can be an indispensable tool for any organization or community. The society of knowledge helps the organization to identify the priorities of their knowledge, so that these organizations can upgrade their devices to become more user-friendly platform in the handling of knowledge. It helps organizations to develop management knowledge base that is more appropriate, meaningful and useful.