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Wednesday, November 3, 2010

Knowledge Management Practices – The Role of Organizational Culture

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Knowledge Management Practices – The Role of Organizational CultureKnowledge is compounding of two words know and ledge. The meaning of first word ‘Know'  is to be aware of how to do or perform something, be aware of the truth of something; have a belief or faith in something; regard as true beyond any doubt, be familiar or acquainted with a person or an object, perceive as familiar and second word ‘Ledge' to enhance or ridge mountain. It is tedious to give exact definition or meaning to knowledge. But as per Oxford dictionary, Knowledge is defined as expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject; what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information; or awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. The classical definition, described but not ultimately endorsed by Plato, specifies that a statement must meet three criteria in order to be considered knowledge: it must be justified, true, and believed.  Management means to attain the object with utilization of resources by the economical way. It is also a technique to set co-ordination in different resources to get maximum output.

Knowledge has two basic definitions of interest. The first pertains to a defined body of information. Depending on the definition, the body of information might consist of facts, opinions, ideas, theories, principles, and models (or other frameworks). Clearly, other categories are possible, too. Subject matter (e.g., chemistry, mathematics, etc.) is just one possibility.

Seeing the definition, knowledge has various kinds of resources to gain it. Management responsibility is to get the knowledge from these resources in economical with effective manner.         Knowledge management (KM) comprises a range of strategies and practices used in an organization to identify, create, represent, distribute, and enable adoption of insights and experiences. Such insights and experiences comprise knowledge, either embodied in individuals or embedded in organizational processes or practice. Many large companies and non-profit organizations have resources dedicated to internal KM efforts, often as a part of their 'business strategy', 'information technology', or 'human resourcemanagement' departments. Several consulting companies also exist that provide strategy and advice regarding KM to these organizations. Knowledge Management efforts typically focus on organizational objectives such as improved performance, competitive advantage, innovation, the sharing of lessons learned, integration and continuous improvement of the organization. KM efforts overlap with organizational learning, and may be distinguished from that by a greater focus on the management of knowledge as a strategic asset and a focus on encouraging the sharing of knowledge. KM efforts can help individuals and groups to share valuable organizational insights, to reduce redundant work, to avoid reinventing the wheel per se, to reduce training time for new employees, to retain intellectual capital as employee's turnover in an organization, and to adapt to changing environments and markets. "Knowledge Management: Where Did It Come From and Where Will It Go?" Knowledge Management is about applying the collective knowledge of the entire workforce to achieve specific organizational goals. It is about facilitating the process by which knowledge is created, shared and utilized.

Knowledge starts from analysis and ends with feedback and review. The development of knowledge has ten phases. The phase explains that the knowledge can never universal and constant over the time. It should revive and works start from phase one to phase ten. It process is perpetual and never end.  As per definition and philosophical way knowledge has intention or object. So it can starts from creation and ends with revive.

Source of Knowledge

Knowledge has various sources to expand it. Generally it is part of learning.  There are two way of knowledge tacit and explicit knowledge. Explicit knowledge is knowledge that has been or can be articulated, codified, and stored in certain media. It can be readily transmitted to others. The information contained in encyclopedias (including Wikipedia) are good examples of explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge (as opposed to formal or explicit knowledge) is knowledge that is difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalizing it.

OCTAPACE Culture for Knowledge Management






Trust & Trustworthiness












Openness: It is found where people feel free to express their ideas, opinions and feelings to each other irrespective of their level, designation etc. The organisation not only encourages them for such expressions but also take them seriously for exploring their talents and implementing them after deciding about their suitability.

Collaboration: Where people are eager to help each other. There is spirit of sacrifice team spirit and familial feeling among people and personal power, ambition and departmental loyalties do not come in the way as hurdles.

Trust and Trustworthiness: Where employees, dyads, team, groups and departments believe or trust each other and act on the basis of oral message and instructions without waiting for instructions and explanations in black and white.

Authenticity: It means speaking the truth fearlessly and making full efforts for keeping up promises made/words given. It is higher than trust and trustworthiness.

Pro-action: People are action oriented, willing to take initiatives and initiate new actives and newer and improved ways of doing things for cost effectiveness, innovation, culturing etc.

Autonomy: People are given some freedom for exercising some discretion in their jobs and, for that sake; they are empowered to do so. It is very essential for bringing out excellence in performance and, as such, very indispensable in case of knowledgeable organizations like IT & HRD.

Confrontation: It means facing issues and problems squarely or boldly by people without hiding or avoiding them for fear of hurting each other.

Experimentation: It means risk taking, trying out new ways of doing things, taking new decisions, discovering new potentials etc.

Query and Response

After the discussion with students, teachers and parents of different institute the result has come that are presented through diagram. Three major technical and management institute of Gorakhpur (150 students, 45 teachers) and local guardian are source of discussion.

Query1: Do you rely that computer is the best resource of knowledge?

Yes 84% No 16%

Query2: Can computer create knowledge?

Yes  23% No 73%

Query3: Computer can communicate full duplex mode in knowledge sharing.

Yes 11% No 89%

Query4: Which is the best knowledge Management source?

Yes 11% No 89%

Query5: KM's analysis and finding method.

MRP /SIP  17% Suggestion 16% Feedback 25% Curriculum 16% Exam Paper 26%


    * Which is required for OCTAPACE culture, computer or e-learning can not fulfill.
    * Human is the best resource of knowledge Management and it fit in OCTAPACE culture.
    * Mining of knowledge is good but basket analysis of knowledge can possible through human being.
    * There is not important, you have much information but there is required modify and update the information.
    * "Imagination is an art but we can not imagine". Knowledge is based on imagination. Computer has no imagination but human being has imagination attribute in itself.
    * Knowledge Management can do some following practices:
          o Free discussion with two way communication
          o Hortative environment for learning
          o Multiple channels for knowledge transfer
          o A standard, flexible knowledge structure.

[1]Amit Pratap Singh,  http://www.articlesbase.com/human-resources-articles/knowledge-management-practices-the-role-of-organizational-culture-3247139.html

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