The state of art of knowledge management model, can be summarized as bellows:
- SECI (Socialization, Externalization, Combination, Internalization) model by Ikujurio Nonaka first appeared in 1991 and attained recognition as a useful and rigorous approach to describing the ways knowledge is generated, transferred and re-created in organizations.
- The N-Form Organization by Gunnar Hedlund of the Stockholm School of Economics, it is introduced firstly in 1994.
- Knowing and Knowledge by Michael Earl of the London Business School is known for the work he has conducted on the information systems function in organizations, the role of the CIO and more recently, the role of the CKO. His more recent works propose a set of heuristics that situate the CKO / knowledge function within organizations and prescribe its activities.
- The OK Net and the OCS by Elias Carayannis (George Washington University) has recently proposed a "…synergistic symbiosis between information technology and managerial and organizational cognition" (1999: 219) whose conjunction is Knowledge Management.
- Three Pillars of Knowledge Management by Karl Wiig is one of the pioneers in the field of Knowledge Management and was among the first to publish a series of texts that assembled management-relevant concepts focusing squarely on the topic. His overarching framework is based on three pillars and a foundation.
- A Model of Intellectual Capital by Leif Edvinsson of Skandia achieved notoriety in the field of Knowledge Management after being named the first CKO in 1991. He publicized his work within Skandia and later developed his thinking in a series of publications.
- The Ecology of Knowledge Management by David Snowden, who directs the Cynefin, IBM's Centre for Organizational Complexity, has developed an approach to implementing Knowledge Management programs in a series of articles that rest, in general terms, on a foundation of cognitive science, semiotics and epistemological pragmatics.
- Knowledge Management Processes by Andrew Inkpen and Adva Dinur, of Thunderbird and Temple University respectively, introduced an empirical model of Knowledge Management designed to explicate learning and knowledge transfer between partners in strategic alliances.
- Intellectual Capital Management by Van Buren, a senior associate with the Research & Enterprise Solutions unit of the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD), has reported a model developed by the ASTD Effective Knowledge Management Working Group, a virtual organization composed of Knowledge Management practitioners in various industries.
- A Taxonomy of Knowledge Management by Despres & Chauvel. The authors of this chapter launched its precursor as a research program which aimed to systematically review the various literatures associated with applied Knowledge Management and construct from these a classification that accounted for activities in the field.