By Maria Johnsen Platinum Quality Author
Knowledge communities are groups of people who share common challenges, opportunities or a passion for a particular topic, and who work together to deepen their understanding of the topic is in progress through learning and sharing of knowledge" (. AIA Knowledge Society)
Theoretical aspects of knowledge society based on technology management, and human beings who share their knowledge to manage effectively. Sharing knowledge is more dependent on information seekers who require certain types of knowledge. So they can perform certain tasks with confidence and a source of knowledge that may have all the necessary information. Theoretical aspects are implemented in such a way that effective knowledge sharing is possible between knowledge seekers and knowledge sources. This aspect helps the seeker and the resources to realize their needs and resources.
Knowledge Society concept was mainly derived from what is known as a community of practice (CoP). The term was coined in 1998 by Jean Love, and Etienne Wenger's claim that the public practice everywhere and that we are generally involved in a number of them either in the workplace, school, home, or community interests, and we relaxed. In some groups we are core members, on the other we are more on the margins. (Smith, 2003)
Toward the end of last century included the idea of shared knowledge for use in the business world and the broader form of CoP development known as "community knowledge".
"The basic difference between the CoP and KC is that the scope of participation of members is clearly defined by job description (such as farming communities) in the CoP, whereas in the case of participation of members of the KC wide open and include in some cases, all employees working in a large organization" ( Yamazaki, 2004.)
KC was first put to practice by Xerox are confronted with a global IT infrastructure transition project. Top managers decided to launch a knowledge-sharing initiative called Transition Alliance. The Alliance consists of fifty IT professionals who are responsible for managing 70 000 desktop workstations, nearly 1,200 servers, and networking hardware across five continents. It was observed that the motivation to learn and develop at the individual level it looks bigger in the structure of society in the form of other organizations. This has important implications for long-term performance of the participants. (Storck and Hill, 2000) Since then, large companies have been using the KC with documented positive results.
KC based on the idea that knowledge and insight gained are created and when humans interact with each other and their environment. Each strategy must therefore implement KC emphasizes the needs for various kinds of social interactions, such as one on one conversation, information technology and communication technology (ICT) tools, discussion groups, research projects, and presentations. Storck and Hill (2000) identified six principles that are essential for the success of organizational learning. This is stated below and apply for KC in a corporate environment:
-Design the format of interaction that promotes openness and allow it to happen.
-Building on the general organizational culture.
-Indicates the existence of mutual interests after successfully completing the initial issues and achieve corporate objectives.
-Leverage aspects of organizational culture that respects the value of shared learning.
Embed knowledge-sharing practices into the work group process.
-Establishing a knowledge sharing environment based on process and cultural norms defined by society than other parts of the organization. (Storck et al,. 2000) Apart from good management of technology and the context in order to provide effective support for learning and knowledge sharing is very important.
In this section, the aim is to clarify the IT tools supporting the knowledge society. KC Most on-line today, there is very little interest in a face to face KC. Tools commonly used for KC Therefore, e-mail, groupware, e-learning teleconferencing systems, etc. But there are obstacles to the use of this technology. to-face interaction can sometimes be very important for example in developing and strengthening relations of trust among team members. Most of the knowledge society Knowledge Management component architecture standards that are based on knowledge portals, components, and databases. These architectures act as a tool for organizing and classifying knowledge in a skillful manner. In Knowledge Management, the portal is the basic source of knowledge from which community members have started to enter, search, and access to knowledge using various methods of KM. Most of the search tools used by the knowledge society is based server system that can handle different portals organization. This equipment must be designed so that they followed a top-down design approach. Because the basis of their inherent complexity, this is a centralized, inflexible and slow to respond to changes in the knowledge base.
If the knowledge base should be treated as an individual rather than a community, the approach will be bottom-up design, and the level complexity of the appliance to a minimum. Of course, all equipment that is used to infrastructure must be maintained so that they can provide the required knowledge in ways that are considered when necessary. Knowledge society using the knowledge asset for applications such as collaborative product development by, different business process automation and real-time collaboration for online applications. If the application is user-centric, then the storage costs can be reduced with the help of knowledge assets is provided and maintained by the knowledge society. Based on the knowledge base which is managed by the society, it is possible to increase the capabilities of search-based applications. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools may only provide basic infrastructure and environment to support learning. But these tools alone are not sufficient to stimulate effective learning in the knowledge society. "But the technology has become central part to play in providing infrastructure for media and learning within and between communities of knowledge if the motivation and the learning context already exists. (Barrett, et al .., 2004)
Discussion: KC Process process in the knowledge society are as follows:
1. Creation or development of knowledge databases. This is the main process in the development of information databases, and must be done efficiently so that other processes can re-use this process if necessary.
2. Storing knowledge so that it can be used to learn and apply the knowledge database. This process also deals with the retrieval of information if data loss is clear.
3. The next process associated with the transfer of knowledge from one category to another. There are several different methods available for transfer and for anyone of them can be selected according to need. Transfer process is different for different types of users, and can occur at various levels.
4. One other important processes are supported by the application of the knowledge society. The knowledge base is only useful if able to provide useful information for users.
5. The last relates to the learning process, which is useful for organizational knowledge base. This process is related to how to learn what it takes, and why it is needed.
Knowledge communities have their utility in the field of high structure, automate processes and tasks, and a stable business environment. Applications must be based on conditions in accordance with the specifications of the most basic pre-knowledge. The structure of this application must be able to take advantage of the knowledge society. Process automation new technology that is used on and based workflow can get an adequate reserve of knowledge society with other systems. This application uses the knowledge base generated by the society to achieve a lower cost, high quality, and greater market share for existing products and services. KC formation process indirectly. Needs or context of knowledge sharing must be defined first. Then we must focus on where to get this knowledge from, namely the members of the organization or community to focus. After the society and the context of Knowledge has decided we need to decide on the media. KC puts in place is not too difficult but maintaining it and run it efficiently is, especially when community members are expected to have lost interest in the future or when there is a lack of trust between users. periodic examination and review so it is important to maintain each KC.
The relationship of knowledge management
KC is very much related to knowledge management. Knowledge management is to capture, manage, and store of knowledge and experience of individual workers and groups within an organization and make this information available to others in the organization. This is not too KC so we acknowledge that KC is a very effective tool for knowledge management.
Examples of the system KC
A good example of the use of the KC at the corporate level is the Hewlett Packard IT Resource Center (ITRC) which brings together engineers, internal IT staff and customers. Using an intranet or extranet communities and focused on a particular product or issue. Communities, inter-run organization has a membership of thousands and they cover topics such as planning and business recovery operating system software. Community participants can ask questions and receive answers in a short time. So when the system administrator has a problem, they can send electronic signs on the intranet, and receive detailed assistance on how to proceed in a few minutes. For society is successful, members must have mutual trust. Hewlett Packard deal with mistrust by using the user profile and ratings system. Members of the public up to the level of response to each other from 1 to 10. response is now a 'credit rating' and the query poser can easily assess the usefulness of these answers. (Barrett, et. Al., 2004) KC success stories like that abound in the corporate world today.
It's the fact that people with well-established common interests facing a similar problem to learn faster when in groups. Interactions between the individual creating the knowledge base that is very important for every member of this community. The knowledge society is based on the basic premise. They are trying to bring people together most sophisticated tools currently used ICT. KC has found tremendous acceptance in the corporate world for their simplicity and usability. ICT tools that work best in creating the KC when the stimulus is enough to learn already exist in society. ICT tools have the constraint, but their interaction and face-toface sometimes becomes important. For KC to succeed there must be a learning context, enough members to contribute knowledge, media and mutual trust among members. If these conditions occur, KC can become an indispensable tool for any organization or society. Community knowledge to help organizations to identify priorities on their knowledge, so that these organizations can upgrade their devices to become more user-friendly platform for handling knowledge. This helps organizations to develop more precise knowledge base management, meaningful, and useful.
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